Amazon in Sweden?


, ,

Good E-Reader reported a few days ago that Amazon is in talks with various delivery firms and that it is about to launch the Kindle in Sweden.  Good E-Reader comments:

Amazon launching in Sweden will be a boon for the local publishing industry and give them a wider reach to sell audiobooks, ebooks and print.  There are a number of digital bookstores in Sweden such as Adlibri  who launched its own e-reader Letto in 2010. Elib and Kobo also have a strong presence, in addition to Storytel and Axiell Media, who distributes over 20,000 titles from 650 publishers to about 300 libraries in Sweden and Finland. It is very likely that Amazon will quickly take over the market because they will have a strong name and be able to quickly attract all of the top publishers to sell digital and print content.

This does not exactly correspond to our own findings, reported in Books on Screens, which suggested that existing digital bookstores believed that they had a strong enough position in the market to withstand any intervention by Amazon.

PostNord‘s communications director commented to a local source (Breakit):

“De har kontaktat oss och vi har pratat om leveranserna, men de har inte avslöjat när de kommer till Sverige. Vi har ju redan tidigare sagt att vi tror att de kommer under 2018 och jag är fortsatt rätt säker på att det blir så.”

[They have contacted us and we have talked about deliveries, but they have not revealed when they will come to Sweden. We have already said that we think that they will come in 2018 and I am still pretty sure it will be.]

A related news story in Breakit is that Amazon had to pay 6 million kroner for the domain name, which was owned by a one-woman advertising company, Amazon AB.


Figuring out the market


We get all kinds of news about e-books, although my sense is that the amount of news has been declining over the past year: I don’t seem to find as many items to post to our FlipBoard site.  Whatever the amount of news, however, one thing is certain: there is total confusion as to whether e-books are on the slide, or are growing, or standing still, or moving to a different planet.

This confusion is caused by two closely related things: first, most of the news concerns the USA, and secondly, that news depends on statistics released by the Association of American Publishers, which, although representing about 1,200 publishers, does not represent all, and, crucially does not include Amazon’s sales in its statistics.

An article in the Observer last year looked at this issue () drawing upon data from AuthorEarnings, whose latest report notes that in the last three quarters of 2017, the value of e-book sales in the USA was just over $1.3 billion – that hardly looks like a market in decline 🙂

Another source suggests that the global e-book market will grow steadily through to 2024, while Statista suggests that for Australia, the revenue growth rate will be about 3.8% between now and 2022.

In Spain, in 2016, the market share for e-books was expected to reach double figures for the first time, up to 10% from 6% in 2015.

The journalists’ reliance on the data from the Association of American Publishers results in them not getting either the global picture or even a true image of the situation in the USA, and to move from this faulty data to claiming that the e-book is dead, is just abou a silly as the statements, a few years ago – from the same people – that the printed book was dead!

Final research seminar

Our project is now formally ended, with the publication of the monograph by Nordicom, and the holding of a final research seminar in Borås on the 24th November. We had invited other e-book researchers from the Nordic countries and around Europe, as well as colleagues from the University of Borås, and the audience totalled about thirty persons, including researchers from Croatia, Lithuania, the Netherlands and Norway.

The event began with a welcome by Professor Ann-Sofie Axelsson, Dean of the Faculty of Library and Information Science, Pedagogics and IT, and presentation of the monograph and a description of the publishing activities of Nordicom, by Professor Ingela Wadbring. This was followed by presentations on the project overall, by Lars Höglund, the authors, by Kersti Nilsson, the publishers, by Elena Maceviciute, booksellers and public libraries, by Birgitta Wallin, academic libraries, by Tom Wilson, and the readers, by Annika Bergström. There was a break for lunch during that first session and then presentations by Terje Colbjörnsen, Frank Huysmans, Zoran Velagić, Arunas Gudinavičius, and a final word, summing up his reactions to the seminar, by Adriaan van der Weel.


You can see the project presentation here, while, below, are synopses of the other presentations, with links to the PowerPoint slides.

Streaming books: Value proposition and competitive advantages in three Norwegian ebook and audio book streaming services.
Terje Colbjørnsen, University of Oslo.

While streaming remains a marginal phenomenon in the global trade book industry at large, a number of streaming services have emerged in later years and competition is fierce to attain favourable market positions. The paper compares three Norwegian ebook and audio book streaming services: Storytel (Norwegian version), Fabel and Pluss. The three services all offer an on-demand selection of digital books at a flat rate, but are distinctly different in other aspects of their offering such as size of catalogue and integration with other services. Storytel, as the service with the largest catalogue, is most clearly aiming to be a “Spotify for digital books”, but still lacks rights for titles from dominant Norwegian publishing houses Gyldendal and Aschehoug. Fabel is a service coming out of precisely these two houses and offers a smaller, more niche-oriented and focused service, with audio books only. Pluss, owned by publisher Vigmostad & Bjørke, comes across as a mixed offer, integrating its service with an ebook store while also aiming to be a broad, Spotify-like provider. In all the three services, we find that the business model and value proposition is closely related to the company’s corporate ownership and its institutional and historical positioning in the book industry. While the Norwegian Book Agreement aims at enabling a level playing field, the digital field of competition remains marked by consumer lock-in and lack of broad, universal offerings of the Spotify-kind.

Link to the presentation


E-book lending through public libraries in the Netherlands: trends and experiences
Frank Huysmans, University of Amsterdam.

Under the new public library act of 2015, the Royal Library (Koninklijke Bibliotheek) of the Netherlands, in close collaboration with the public library sector, operates two e-lending platforms for Dutch citizens based on a ‘one copy multiple users’-model. First there is the national e-lending platform currently offering 16,000 titles. All 3.7 million members of the ca 154 public library organizations can make an account (the Netherlands have paid memberships for adults, whereas most children and youth up to 16 years can have a membership without cost). So far, over 400,000 of them have registered, of which slightly over 200,000 borrow at least one e-book per year. Second, the Holiday Library app can be downloaded by all citizens (both public library members and non-members). During the summer holidays, this e-library is ‘open’ and a limited number of titles (30 for adults and 30 for kids and youth) can be downloaded in-app and read for free). In the summer of 2017, around 800,000 accounts and over 2 million e-book downloads were registered.

These developments are discussed in the context of commercial e-book subscription services and e-book sales. So far, there is no evidence for ‘cannibalization’ of e-book sales when the same e-book titles are available for e-lending through the library portal, although in general a window of 6 months applies. Also, the steady increase in the e-lending numbers can not completely compensate for the drop in the lending numbers of paper books in Dutch public libraries.

Link to the presentation
Overview of the Croatian e-book market
Zoran Velagić, Department of Information Sciences, University of Osijek, Croatia
Franjo Pehar, Department of Information Sciences, University of Zadar, Croatia

Zoran Velagić presented this jointly prepared outline of the e-book development in Croatia based on surveys of mayor e-book distributors and publishers’ attitudes towards e-books (using the instruments designed by the Swedish project). Four surveys of e-book distributors were conducted between February 2013 and February 2017, while two self-completed questionnaire surveys of publishers’ attitudes towards e-books were conducted in Spring 2015 and Spring 2017. The findings show that the number of unique e-book titles in Croatian language throughout the period is small (below 2000), while the access to English language production is rising. Around 50 publishers participate in the e-book business, and a majority have plans to increase their share of the market. The most popular e-book format is EPUB, the average retail price is EUR 5-6, but almost half of Croatian language e-books are freely-accessible thanks to government sponsored projects. Publishers are still not sure about the changing relations towards booksellers, libraries, and readers.

Link to the presentation

How much cheaper are e-books? The analysis of e-book prices in small language e-book markets
Arūnas Gudinavičius, Vilnius University, Faculty of Communication, Digital Media Lab.

It is believed that e-books should be much cheaper than printed books. And mostly they are cheaper, in spite of the fact that, in most European countries, the price of an e-book usually includes full VAT, rather than a reduced rate. But how much exactly are e-books cheaper, how much can a reader save if he buys e-books? And what is the difference between the prices in small language e-book markets such as Croatian, Finnish, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Norwegian, Slovenian, Swedish? How does this difference correlate with the reduced VAT for printed books, or with the number of e-book titles on sale?

A small research project was carried out to answer these questions aboved. The largest (with the most titles for sale) e-book retailer in each country was selected. Two shopping lists (one for e-books, another for printed books of the same titles) were created from the retailer of each country. If the particular largest e-book retailer had no printed books on sale, the largest print book retailer was selected. E-book best seller lists were used to create the shopping lists. If there were no best seller lists, lists of the new books were used. Books prices in national currencies were converted into Euro according to exchange rate of the research day. The percentage difference (with VAT included and VAT excluded) in e-books and printed books prices were calculated and compared between countries. Preliminary results showed that differences between e-book and book prices exist and vary between the countries. Different VAT regulations also affect final prices.

Link to the presentation

[Pictures by Helen Rosenberg and Tom Wilson]

Book launch

Today we had the launch of the book that has resulted from the project, under the title, Books on screens: players in the Swedish e-book market. The launch took place during our final research seminar in Borås, which was attended by participants from Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands, Croatia, and Lithuania—we’ll have a report on that event shortly.

You can now see the book details on the Nordicom site. As well as placing an order for the print version of the book, you can freely download either a pdf file or an EPUB file.

The decline in e-book sales is not universal

There have been reports from both the USA and the UK on the decline in e-book sales and the ‘resurgence’ of print, but, as usual, the Anglo-American situation of members of the respective publishers’ associations, is not repeated in other parts of the world.

Here’s an interesting example of that from Romania:

If that figure of 50% of book sales being made up of e-books and audio books is correct, it must be one of the highest proportions in the world, if not the highest.

Progress on the monograph

We’ve come to the end of the Project and are now busy on the final bit of work on the monograph we promised Vetenskapsrådet we would deliver.  It’s all written, coming to about 200 pages, and will be published by Nordicom, another survey agency at the University of Gothenburg.  We should be finished with the final copy-editing in the next few days and I imagine that the book will be published before the end of June.  A typical price for Nordicom’s publications is about 250SEK (€25, £22, $28), and there will also be an e-book version.  I will keep this blog open to report when the book is available, but it is unlikely that we’ll be posting much before then.

The real story?


The previous blog post talked about biased news about e-books as a result of journalists failing to understand the nature of the data they quote.  Here’s a much more nuanced approach to the issue:

Michel Hiltzik has done his homework, and points out that, “The Big 5 — Hachette, HarperCollins, Macmillan, Simon & Schuster, and Penguin Random House — account for 37% of the overall book market, but only 26% of all ebook sales”.

Decline in e-book sales? Fake news?


Once again the journalistic pencils are out, drafting articles about the decline in the sales of e-books, ignoring, once again, that the statistics they are quoting are partial, and biased towards the sales of the ‘big four’ – Simon & Schuster, Penguin Random House, Hachette and HarperCollins, companies that dominate not only the American market, but also the English-speaking market world wide.

And we know why their e-book sales have declined: it is because they derive all their profits from the printed book and they have no coherent business plan for making money from e-books and, consequently, are pricing them out of the market.  As one of our Swedish publishers said – and I have to paraphrase – “Publishing is run by old guys like me, if it was run by 20 to 25-year olds, things would be very different!”

These journalistic scribblers have no data on the sale of e-books by Amazon, or any of the e-book middle-men like Smashwords or Author House, or any other of the independent publishers that are not members of the AAP or the Publishers Association in the UK.

They also ignore the world picture – they report nothing of sales in Germany, France, Spain or South America, let alone Africa, Malaysia, Japan and China. In other words, it rapidly approaches fake news!

E-book sales keep on growing


, ,

A few years ago, some commentators (high on something or other, perhaps) were forecasting the death of the printed book, now some (often the same!) are forecasting the death of the e-book.

This is all the result of reports of declining sales of e-books in reports from the Association of American Publishers, home of the Big Four, i.e., the same publishers that negotiated agency terms with Amazon in order to lift the price of e-books to the same level as their printed books. And while their sales fell, the sales of Amazon-published and independently published e-books continued to rise. has been monitoring all of this for some time now, and its February 2017 report makes interesting reading. It shows, for example, that in the USA e-book sales are now 42% of all book sales, in the UK and Canada, 34%, and in Australia 28% – so much for the “death of the e-book” – in the USA and the UK that amounts to 1.5 e-books per year per head of population. In the USA total sales of e-books was 487,280,000 in the year to February 2017 giving a total sales value of $3,177,000. So perhaps the Big Four got things wrong and, seeking to preserve printed-book profits (on which, remember, they recover ALL the costs of production for both formats), in effect gave up on e-books.

Well, one of the Big Four, Hachette, seems to have realised that it got things wrong and has now bought the UK e-book publisher Bookoutre (set up, I believe by a former Hachette manager). Bookoutre sold about six million copies of e-books last year, mainly through Amazon and Philip Jones on the Bookseller site comments:

Bookouture has profited from an e-book market many in the trade have misread. Amazon’s strong growth in Kindle sales from 2009 onwards led some to believe that digital sales would overtake and ultimately kill off print book sales; the threat level was later downgraded to trade titles, then to commercial books, and then finally to commercial fiction. But the big publisher strategies are still largely predicated on those early predictions, with agency pricing (fixed pricing for e-books) introduced first to stave off the likelihood of a print’s sudden collapse, and secondly to curb Amazon’s run-away growth. The strategy is to price e-books in line with their print equivalents so that the digital format does not gain a competitive advantage over what is for the major publishers the important physical market. However, such a rigid approach fails to take into account that some titles and lots of e-books appear to work better at lower prices; in short that the Kindle store is not the same as the physical book market. Rather than declining, the e-book market has splintered away from its print echo.

And goes on to say, “In buying a fast-growing e-book specialist Hachette is clearly trying to plug the gap it helped to create”. Can we expect similar acquisitions from the other big publishers? I expect we can, since, if they continue with their present strategy, they are going to find that the growth in e-book sales is not going to be to their benefit.

Conference report: 4th International Conference on Publishing Trends and Contexts, 1-2 December, 2016, Zagreb, Croatia


, , , , , , , ,

The recent publishing conference organized for the fourth time by our colleagues from Croatian universities was hosted and supported by Goethe Institut in Zagreb. As usual it was sponsored by the Ministry of Culture of Croatia.

This time we had to wait till Bora wind will allow the bus with the participants and students from the University of Zadar to get through the long tunnel on the road between two cities. After some delay they have arrived safely and the house was full. The main organizer prof. Nives Tomašević with the Manager of the Institute Ostwald-Richter have opened the first session of the conference.

Over two days twelve papers were presented at the conference that looked at quite different issues and publishing areas.

Christoph Bläsi from Johannes Gutenberg-Universität in Mainz has characterized the market of schoolbooks for secondary schools (K12) that seems to be taken omitted by publishing researchers and mainly investigated by educational and didactic scholars. not worthy of investigation. Meanwhile, school publishing experienced great influence of state and is marked by great complexity of the products. It is also governed by very specific business model as the publishers know exact number of potential users and have a long-term perspective of its development. There is a large number of influential interest groups that follow their activity and assess their products. They have to take into accounts new competitors who arrive to the market after official approval, new practices in schools and cope with teacher generated content. Christoph has done an overview of existing research literature outlining specific features, advantages and risks of school publishing, the consequences of state intervention in different countries, and move of many publishers into provision of customized services and technologies. Digital learning era will change the positions of publishers quite significantly, though at the moment publishers together with teachers are criticized fro promoting conventional values.

Adrian van der Weel and Christof Bläsi

Adrian van der Weel and Christof Bläsi

Miha Kovač (University of Ljubljana) has presented investigation of bestsellers in European countries in 2008-2014 that he has conducted together with Ruediger Wischenbart (Vienna). They have examined the bestsellers’ lists in West European countries that have trustworthy information about them for the chosen period. They used certain coefficient methodology taking into account the sizes of different markets to produce comparable data. During 2008-2010 English bestsellers dominated European lists with 40 per cent and were closely followed by Swedish and Italian ones. Only translations from dominating languages could be found in the lists for this period. In 2010-2014, the list has change: translations from English shrank to 36 per cent, and the Nordic translations exploded, and new languages appeared. The bestseller list became more diverse, more bestseellers from non-European languages could be found. However, three first English language bestsellers (set in American contexts) were far ahead of the rest. Overall the diversity of the European list was not so big. The investigation also has shown that the generation process of big bestsellers has changed. Stieg Larsson (Swedish bestselling author) has arrived to it in a common way: was known journalist, had contacts in publishing, died at the right moment, was translated to German without success. Then the publisher of his French translation invested more in Millenium trilogy that sold better than their other books, here the promotion started and spread over Europe with English translation coming latest. Thus, the intermediating languages for bestsellers in Europe are French and German. The success comes in a traditional way through promotion. On the other hand E.L. James published through fanfiction, got peer reviewed and corrected the text. It came to the publishers after selling 250000 copies of e-book. Entirely new way to become a bestseller was established. In 2016, German Amazon has nine bestsellers and all are self-published, the same has happened in English and Italian, where at least half of bestsellers are self-published or produced by small imprints. It remains to be seen if it is a change of culture or two different cultures existing side by side.

Adrian van der Weel (University of Leiden) investigated the issue of authority in alternative scholarly publication. He noted that despite changing scholarly communication and move to digital sphere authors and institutions still want to produce authoritative works, users are looking for them, funding agencies want to invest in them, general public also is interested in authoritative works. The areas of change affect three elements of authority: infrastructure, function, form. Technology infrastructure has low authority effects, people do not take digital text as seriously as paper ones, which are produced using traditional infrastructure.

Function relates to research culture that consists of national and disciplinary tradition, certification, peer review, registration, research assessment, and authority demands. Form includes formal and informal output. At present, boundaries between formal and informal become slightly porous. Output becomes formal because of explicit criteria, such as, editorial filtering for object and quality, production of record for copyright and intellectual ownership. Paper connects author, object and text in a way, which does not allow taking them apart and this produces symbolic value. Publishers start experimenting with different publishing formats and become a little less formal. Creators outside formal publishing try to experiment with formal publishing ways of working, trying to become more formal and authoritative. So, we have to answer the question if digital substitutes can acquire the same authority as paper publications. It can be done in various ways, e.g., by replacing formal characteristic by assessment of the authority.

Zoran Velagić and Tomislav Jakopec (University of Osijek) gave an interesting overview of the used books market online. They have opened the discussion with the discussion of the term ‘used book category’, which is far from clear. In fact, it is everything what is sold in the certain type of sale channels, outside the usual market sales channels that are basically uncontrolled. Used book market is difficult to trace as a whole. The domains of it are: antiquarians, street peddlers, exchange between users, e-commerce and second hand trade online services, and exchange online. Reconstruction of the used book markets is, on one hand, easier to track online, but almost impossible to reconstruct as there are many unknown sales channels. Even the size of it is not established, though assumptions are made that it hurts publishing industry. It is out of the control of publishers and used to be so for a long time. E-books allow the control of the sold copies and of the whole book market. So, the question is if the used book market will survive, though it used to exist in different historical periods. At present publishers’ strategies vary: textbook publishers produce fragile products and republish them frequently. Exploring the used book market online requires special tools and skills: web crawling by the bots (no human intervention, gets only structured data from well known sites); manual input (the only way to get data about books not online and very time consuming). The possible tools for online exploration were introduced.

Franjo Pehar (University of Zadar) has looked into user experience and usability for digital publishing. Usability comes before user experience. It is connected with and is an expression of user interaction with the system. It helps to remove the obstacles for interaction and meet the standards. User experience refers to how user feels using the product and the emotions of the user. The main principles of printed book design are transposed to the digital world, but with significant elements of change. So far, complaints about digital products are many and relate to orientation, navigation, distraction, page layout and so on. The context affects usability and user experience and it is difficult to standardize different contexts. The author overviewed related research topics in publishing studies: user perception and interaction, usage of e-books and digital textbooks, usability of platforms, adaptive learning and social media, applications and formats. Many practical tips and approaches to design are employed in publishing, such as, readability vs legibility, serif vs sans serif, computer screen vs paper, line length and format, peripheral vs central vision, colour blindness and many more. Though there are different formative or summative testing methods, one right way to get usable products producing the best user experience was not found.

A view of the audience - serious listeners!

A view of the audience – serious listeners!

Ewa Jabłońska-Stefanowicz (University of Wrocław) examined the principles of book statistics and in particular e-book statistics in Poland. The legal deposit serves as the basis for the national bibliography. Digital documents and publications are sent to digital depository. E-books receive special e-ISBN in exchange for metadata. But the producers of e-books are on the whole quite different from traditional publishers. Variety of registries and methods to record e-books produce very different data about the output of e-books. Sometimes it is not quite clear what is actually registered – e-books, different digital documents, or other computer files. Therefore, the author has tried to carry out an independent research to find out how many e-books are available in Poland.

Nives Tomasevic and Elena Maceviciute

Nives Tomasevic and Elena Maceviciute

Elena Macevičiūtė and Tom Wilson (University of Borås) have explored the issues and forms of competition among the publishers of e-books in Sweden. Using the data from the interviews with Swedish publishers they have identified tensions between big and small publishers, competition between e-book retailers and new entrants, such as, subscription services, but also with public libraries. Swedish e-books compete mainly with their printed counterparts as well as with e-books in English and other digital media. This competition is felt in Sweden acutely because the most popular reading device is a tablet computer that also provides access to social media, digital films, TV, radio, and games.

Benoît Berthou (Sorbonne Paris Cité University) talked about book as graphic media, namely, about comic books in France. This sector is growing fast (up to 450 per cent) and comic books are read by one third of French population. The genres of comic books are quite different and there are differences between comics that are inventions of famous authors, series of publications, and comics based on specific characters. Benoît has demonstrated two cases: the author comic and the character-based comic. Comic landscape in France is at present quite international. Though the most popular are comic albums (France), but comics from the USA, mangas from Asia, and graphic novels from the UK are quite widespread. Most translations are made from Japanese and English. The quality of books is high and they are establishing themselves as adult books.

Josipa Selthofer (University of Osijek) has continued the topic on comic books. She presented comic book market in Croatia. This literature was thriving in Croatia as part of previous Yugoslavia, but was practically non-existent after the Independence war (1991–1995). At that period publishers did not get return on investment, best designers worked for foreigners, consumers did not accept high prices of the production. Josipa has introduced Croatian authors, comic characters and main features. Since 2002 the comic books started to revive on commercial basis and their popularity has returned.

Anita Papić and Domagoj Sajter (University of Osijek) have measured the financial health of Croatian publishing market in 2010-2015. It was an unusual economic approach to publishing market for this conference. Anita has explained how financial health of markets is measured and provided the main data. The economic data showed reclining trend of publishers revenue in 2010-2015. Biggest dip the market has taken in 2013. However, the losses from printed books are not taken up by revenues from e-books, therefore, it is obvious that e-books do not cannibalize the sales of physical books.

Two final presentations of the first day were transferred to the next morning due to the later start and flight delays of the presenters.

Michael Bhaskar (Canelo Digital Publishing) has talked about publishing as a specific form of criticism. This function of publishing becomes more and more important as the overwhelming abundance of text is produced and this is the greatest change from Gutenberg. Even before the printing press people thought that there is too much to read and since the mass of books was continually growing. At present the price of text production is close to zero, and literature publishing is huge (one million English books a year). One can regard publishing of books as the first instance of criticism on a book. Publishers are fundamental critics and interpreters of a book. They create the initial approach to an author and a book. Michael produced and example of Lee Child who is positioned as a thriller writer bought in airports. Despite his literary merits, his publisher does not want him to be compared with Camus or Servantes. Text editing is the ultimate act of criticism, but also cover design, pricing (Jane Austin may be priced as an object of study or a beach read), reviewing is specific outlets. Digital technology removes other functions and leaves the critical function in the centre. In the world of textual abundance the publisher keeps the filters that help to manage this overabundance of books. We are left with a system of interpretations helping to position the texts. Curation becomes the act of selection and evaluation. The publishers turn into librarians by executing critical function and managing the abundance.

Sophie Noël (Sorbonne Paris Cité University) looked into radical independent presses in France at the turn of the 21st century as a new form of political and intellectual engagement. She was interested how this influential minority publishing can affect the mainstream publishing. Sophie has investigated 35 publishers, that are independent, not militant, not connected to larger groups, and were created onwards from 1985 in the wake of anti-capitalist and anti-globalization movements. They are in academic, trade, political and avant-garde sectors. The niche is small but very dynamic, characterized by political engagement. Most are small, but also established, publishing from three up to 50 titles. They compete with mainstream publishers in France, their books are found everywhere in French bookshops and on Amazon. They form a community of vision, are socially engaged, publish theoretical essays and academic texts, small formats and paperbacks (radical series have to be cheap and accessible). Their production filled in the gap as mainstream publishers did not publish political and revolutionary classics and translations. These presses put radical debate back on political agenda, and the mainstream publishers also started creating radical series. Still, these radical presses and mainstream publishing remain apart and different in many respects. Independent publishers and booksellers are working differently and go hand in hand.

The day was finished by a Round table with Croatian publishers. After the presentation of the COST E-READ action, the European Association of Publishing Studies, the situation of Croatian book market, the programme of Publishing studies in Croatia and the publishing projects of the students, Miha has provoked an interesting discussion about the economics and responsibility of publishers, the motives of their activities, the criteria for choosing authors and texts for publishing and the development of book sector in Croatia in general.

Posted for Elena Maceviciute